The biopsychosocial model of addiction contends that psychological, biological, genetic, and sociocultural factors all play a part in substance use and should be considered when creating prevention and treatment plans for patients.
A new paradigm has arisen from the criticism of the biological model, which previously dominated the area of addiction studies. Medical professionals, many of whom also view addiction as a recurring brain illness with a genetic and biochemical basis, established and maintained the conventional biological paradigm. The addiction is a sign of alterations in measurable biochemical or neurophysiological processes, according to the biological or disease model of addiction.
Modern medical disease models recognize the importance of psychiatric, cultural, social, and behavioral elements of addiction, even if these aspects are perceived as being far less important in the onset and treatment.
The biopsychosocial model of addiction
Science has not provided a single theory explaining why some people can take drugs without becoming addicted, while others abuse or become dependent on them. The evidence instead points to the interaction of biological, genetic, personality traits, psychiatric, intellectual, social, cultural, and environment-related factors in the development of the drug use problem. The core idea of the biopsychosocial model of addiction is that these factors interact to generate problems with substance use. Preventative and therapeutic strategies must thus incorporate these factors.
The four Ps of the biopsychosocial model of addiction
The biopsychosocial model of addiction is broken down into four distinguishable factors.
The biological, social, and environmental predisposing variables include those that make a person more likely to acquire a certain habit or ailment. A family history of mental illnesses and substance abuse, a history of concussions, and a fearful or anxious personality from birth could all be considered biological causes of addiction.
Predisposing social variables for a patient might include their family history of drug use or their friendship group growing up. Likewise, psychological risk factors may include parental invalidation in the past, stress, despair, or violence towards their parents.
A precipitating factor can be thought of as a catalyst for the addiction. For example, a perfectly healthy individual could fall into a drug abuse problem after a three-month-long usage of excessive alcohol – this could serve as one of their biological precipitating factors. A socially triggering issue could be losing their current job. These precipitating factors can easily lead the individual to revisit earlier feelings of betrayal and invalidation, leading to the use and eventual abuse of drugs.
Perpetuating factors are those that prolong reliance on addiction. Biological variables may include continued alcohol usage and being on a subtherapeutic dosage of medication, for example. Additionally, the patient’s continuous interpersonal difficulties and financial pressures may be contributing to social variables. On the other side, the patient’s persistent self-harm and a lack of adaptive methods of coping can also perpetuate their psychiatric condition.
Protective factors and strengths
These factors are simply those that can have a beneficial effect. For example, the patient may be in good health besides their addiction, and therapy may have worked out successfully in the past. The patient may also receive encouragement from a close friend and frequently visits a psychiatrist. These factors can have a huge impact on recovery.
Together, these are the four factors that frame the approach when planning a treatment in line with the biopsychosocial model of addiction. Healthcare providers who use this model to treat their patients have a broad approach, as they consider and analyze multiple factors that could be causing or resolving addictive behavior. These include, but are not limited to, the temperament of the patient, childhood risk factors, classical and operant conditioning, self-efficacy, the influence of family members, peers, intimate partners, and spouses, plus the impact of ethnicity, culture, gender, and much more.
How do FNPs use the principles of the biopsychosocial model?
According to scientific theory, addiction is a chronic, recurrent brain condition that will become severe if ignored. The biopsychosocial paradigm, on the other hand, accepts the potential for spontaneous recovery. Holistic recovery or recovery with no use of professional therapy is one of the most common strategies for overcoming drug usage concerns. This kind of recovery is only possible if the negative precipitants are exchanged for positive ones.
Family Nurse Practitioners (FNPs) help addiction patients by teaching them about drug-free therapy, its benefits, and how it can be pursued. They also offer assistance every step of the way to make the process easy for the patient and their loved ones.
Additionally, FNPs may also prescribe medications when drug-free therapy is not working for the patients, as they have the authority to do so. They also play a crucial role in monitoring the patient’s health and general wellbeing throughout the process of recovery.
Registered Nurses (RNs) who wish to pursue a career as an FNP to help addiction patients can enroll in one of the MSN FNP online programs by the American International College. These courses are ideal for anyone who wants to pursue an FNP degree taught completely online. It will give aspiring FNPs a unique opportunity to learn and earn without compromising their career growth. Students who opt for an online FNP degree have the option to balance their studies, work, and personal life in a way that suits them.